SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Notes to Financial Statements|
|Note 2 - SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
Basis of presentation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of BioCorRx Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiary, Fresh Start Private, Inc. and its majority owned subsidiary, BioCorRx Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (hereafter referred to as the “Company” or “BioCorRx”). All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
The Company recognizes revenue in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board “FASB” Accounting Standards Codification “ASC” 606. A five-step analysis a must be met as outlined in Topic 606: (i) identify the contract with the customer, (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract, (iii) determine the transaction price, (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations, and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) performance obligations are satisfied. Provisions for discounts and rebates to customers, estimated returns and allowances, and other adjustments are provided for in the same period the related sales are recorded. There were no changes to our revenue recognition policy from the adoption of ASC 606.
The Company’s net sales are disaggregated by product category. The sales/access fees consist of product sales. The licensee / distribution rights income consists of the income recognized from the amortization of distribution agreements entered into for our products.
The following table presents our net sales by product category for the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2017:
We license proprietary products and protocols to customers under licensing agreements that allow those customers to utilize the products and protocols in services they provide to their customers. The timing and amount of revenue recognized from license agreements depends upon a variety of factors, including the specific terms of each agreement. Such agreements are reviewed for multiple performance obligations. Performance obligations can include amounts related to initial non-refundable license fees for the use of our products and protocols and additional royalties on covered services.
The Company granted license and sub-license agreements for various regions or States in the United States allowing the licensee to market, distribute and sell solely in the defined license territory, as defined, the products provided by the Company. The agreements are granted for a defined period or perpetual and are effective as long as annual milestones are achieved.
Terms for payments for licensee agreements vary from full cash payment to defined terms. In cases where license or sub-license fees are uncollected or deferred; the Company nets those uncollected fees with the deferred revenue for balance sheet presentation.
The Company amortizes license fees over the shorter of the economic life of the related contract life or contract terms for each licensee.
The following table presents the changes in deferred revenue, reflected as current and long term liabilities on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet:
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates include assumptions used in the fair value of stock-based compensation, the fair value of other equity and debt instruments, fair value of intangible assets, useful lives of assets and allowance for doubtful accounts.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity date of three months or less as cash equivalents.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Financial instruments and related items, which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk, consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents. The Company places its cash and temporary cash investments with credit quality institutions. At times, such amounts may be in excess of the FDIC insurance limit. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company’s deposits in excess of the FDIC limit were $29,772 and $0, respectively.
Accounts receivable are recorded at original invoice amount less an allowance for uncollectible accounts that management believes will be adequate to absorb estimated losses on existing balances. Management estimates the allowance based on collectability of accounts receivable and prior bad debt experience. Accounts receivable balances are written off upon management’s determination that such accounts are uncollectible. Recoveries of accounts receivable previously written off are recorded when received. Management believes that credit risks on accounts receivable will not be material to the financial position of the Company or results of operations. The allowance for doubtful accounts was $12,500 and $105,000 as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Fair value estimates discussed herein are based upon certain market assumptions and pertinent information available to management as of December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017. The respective carrying value of certain financial instruments approximated their fair values. These financial instruments include cash, stock based compensation and notes payable. The fair value of the Company’s convertible securities is based on management estimates and reasonably approximates their book value.
See Footnote 9 and 11 for derivative liabilities and Footnote 12 and 13 for stock based compensation and other equity instruments.
Accounting Standards Codification subtopic Segment Reporting 280-10 (“ASC 280-10”) establishes standards for reporting information regarding operating segments in annual financial statements and requires selected information for those segments to be presented in interim financial reports issued to stockholders. ASC 280-10 also establishes standards for related disclosures about products and services and geographic areas. Operating segments are identified as components of an enterprise about which separate discrete financial information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision maker, or decision-making group, in making decisions how to allocate resources and assess performance. The information disclosed herein materially represents all of the financial information related to the Company’s principal operating segment.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the asset’s estimated useful life, which is five years for furniture and all other equipment. Expenditures for maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred.
Intangible assets with finite lives are amortized over their estimated useful lives. Intangible assets with indefinite lives are not amortized, but are tested for impairment annually. The Company’s intangible assets with finite lives are patent costs, which are amortized over their economic or legal life, whichever is shorter.
The Company follows a “primary asset” approach to determine the cash flow estimation period for a group of assets and liabilities that represents the unit of accounting for a long-lived asset to be held and used. Long-lived assets to be held and used are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. The carrying amount of a long-lived asset is not recoverable if it exceeds the sum of the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the asset. Long-lived assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of carrying amount or fair value less cost to sell.
Property and equipment are stated at cost. When retired or otherwise disposed, the related carrying value and accumulated depreciation are removed from the respective accounts and the net difference less any amount realized from disposition, is reflected in earnings. For financial statement purposes, property and equipment are recorded at cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives of 5 to 15 years.
The Company evaluates the recoverability of long-lived assets based upon forecasted undiscounted cash flows. Should impairment in value be indicated, the carrying value of intangible assets will be adjusted, based on estimates of future discounted cash flows resulting from the use and ultimate disposition of the asset. Assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of the carrying amount or the fair value less costs to sell.
At December 31, 2018, the Company management performed an evaluation of its acquired intangible assets for purposes of determining the implied fair value of the assets at December 31, 2018. The tests indicated that the recorded remaining book value of its acquired license from TheraKine ltd. (Note 5) exceeded its fair value for the year ended December 31, 2018 and accordingly recorded on impairment loss of $250,000 and reduced the carrying value to $0. Considerable management judgment is necessary to estimate the fair value. Accordingly, actual results could vary significantly from management’s estimates.
Net (loss) Per Share
The Company accounts for net income (loss) per share in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 260-10, Earnings Per Share (“ASC 260-10”), which requires presentation of basic and diluted earnings per share (“EPS”) on the face of the statement of operations for all entities with complex capital structures and requires a reconciliation of the numerator and denominator of the basic EPS computation to the numerator and denominator of the diluted EPS.
Basic net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during each period. It excludes the dilutive effects of any potentially issuable common shares.
Diluted net loss share is calculated by including any potentially dilutive share issuances in the denominator. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, potentially dilutive shares issuances were comprised of convertible notes, warrants and stock options.
The following potentially dilutive securities have been excluded from the computations of weighted average shares outstanding for the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, as they would be anti-dilutive:
The Company follows the policy of charging the costs of advertising to expense as incurred. The Company charged to operations $88,912 and $134,217 as advertising costs for the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Research and development costs
The Company accounts for research and development costs in accordance with the Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 730-10, Research and Development (“ASC 730-10”). Under ASC 730-10, all research and development costs must be charged to expense as incurred. Accordingly, internal research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Third-party research and developments costs are expensed when the contracted work has been performed or as milestone results have been achieved. Company-sponsored research and development costs related to both present and future products are expensed in the period incurred. The Company incurred research and development expenses of $151,768 and $450,722 for the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Derivative Instrument Liability
The Company accounts for derivative instruments in accordance with ASC 815, which establishes accounting and reporting standards for derivative instruments and hedging activities, including certain derivative instruments embedded in other financial instruments or contracts and requires recognition of all derivatives on the balance sheet at fair value, regardless of hedging relationship designation. Accounting for changes in fair value of the derivative instruments depends on whether the derivatives qualify as hedge relationships and the types of relationships designated are based on the exposures hedged. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company did not have any derivative instruments that were designated as hedges.
In 2017 and prior and in accordance with ASC 815, certain convertible notes and warrants with anti-dilutive provisions were deemed to be derivatives. The value of the derivative instrument will fluctuate with the price of the Company’s common stock and is recorded as a current liability on the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheet. The change in the value of the liability is recorded as “unrealized gain (loss) on derivative liability” on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Effective January 1, 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2017-11, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (Topic 480), Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815). The amendments in Part I of this Update change the classification analysis of certain equity-linked financial instruments (or embedded features) with down round features.
When determining whether certain financial instruments should be classified as liabilities or equity instruments, a down round feature no longer precludes equity classification when assessing whether the instrument is indexed to an entity’s own stock. The amendments also clarify existing disclosure requirements for equity-classified instruments. As a result, a freestanding equity-linked financial instrument (or embedded conversion option) no longer would be accounted for as a derivative liability at fair value as a result of the existence of a down round feature.
For freestanding equity classified financial instruments, the amendments require entities that present earnings per share (EPS) in accordance with Topic 260 to recognize the effect of the down round feature when it is triggered. That effect is treated as a dividend and as a reduction of income available to common shareholders in basic EPS. Convertible instruments with embedded conversion options that have down round features are now subject to the specialized guidance for contingent beneficial conversion features (in Subtopic 470-20, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options), including related EPS guidance (in Topic 260). The amendments in Part II of this Update recharacterize the indefinite deferral of certain provisions of Topic 480 that now are presented as pending content in the Codification, to a scope exception.
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2017-11 by electing the retrospective method to the outstanding financial instruments with a down round feature by means of a cumulative-effect adjustment to the statement of financial position as of the beginning of the fiscal year. Accordingly, the Company reclassified the fair value of the reset provisions embedded in previously issued warrants with embedded anti-dilutive provisions from liability to equity (accumulated deficit) in aggregate of $175,975.
Stock Based Compensation
Share-based compensation issued to employees is measured at the grant date, based on the fair value of the award, and is recognized as an expense over the requisite service period. The Company measures the fair value of the share-based compensation issued to non-employees using the stock price observed in the arms-length private placement transaction nearest the measurement date (for stock transactions) or the fair value of the award (for non-stock transactions), which were considered to be more reliably determinable measures of fair value than the value of the services being rendered. The measurement date is the earlier of (1) the date at which commitment for performance by the counterparty to earn the equity instruments is reached, or (2) the date at which the counterparty’s performance is complete.
As of December 31, 2018, there were 791,850 stock options outstanding, of which 634,350 were vested and exercisable. As of December 31, 2017, there were 478,500 stock options outstanding, of which 231,000 were vested and exercisable.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the estimated future tax effects of net operating loss and credit carry forwards and temporary differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their respective financial reporting amounts measured at the current enacted tax rates. The Company records an estimated valuation allowance on its deferred income tax assets if it is more likely than not that these deferred income tax assets will not be realized.
The Company recognizes a tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the consolidated financial statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company has not recorded any unrecognized tax benefits.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In February 2016, the FASB established ASC Topic 842, Leases (Topic 842), by issuing ASU No. 2016-02, which requires lessees to recognize leases on-balance sheet and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. Topic 842 was subsequently amended by ASU No. 2018-01, Land Easement Practical Expedient for Transition to Topic 842; ASU No. 2018-10, Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases; and ASU No. 2018-11, Targeted Improvements. The new standard establishes a right-of-use (ROU) model that requires a lessee to recognize a ROU asset and lease liability on the balance sheet. Leases will be classified as finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern and classification of expense recognition in the statement of operations. The Company adopted the new standard on January 1, 2019.
The new standard provides a number of optional practical expedients in transition. The Company has elected the ‘package of practical expedients’, which permit it not to reassess under the new standard its prior conclusions about lease identification, lease classification and initial direct costs. The Company does not expect to elect the use-of-hindsight or the practical expedient pertaining to land easements; the latter is not applicable to the Company.
The new standard will have a material effect on the Company’s financial statements. The most significant effects of adoption relate to (1) the recognition of new ROU assets and lease liabilities on its balance sheet for real estate operating leases; and (2) providing significant new disclosures about its leasing activities.
Upon adoption, the Company will recognize additional operating lease liabilities, net of deferred rent, of approximately $25,000 based on the present value of the remaining minimum rental payments under current leasing standards for existing operating leases. The Company expects to recognize corresponding ROU assets of approximately $25,000.
The new standard also provides practical expedients for an entity’s ongoing accounting. The Company will elect the short-term lease recognition exemption for all leases that qualify. This means, for those leases that qualify, the Company will not recognize ROU assets or lease liabilities, and this includes not recognizing ROU assets or lease liabilities for existing short-term leases of those assets in transition. Beginning in 2019, the Company expects changes to its disclosed lease recognition policies and practices, as well as to other related financial statement disclosures due to the adoption of this standard. These revised disclosures will be made in the Company’s first quarterly report in 2019.
There are various other updates recently issued, most of which represented technical corrections to the accounting literature or application to specific industries and are not expected to a have a material impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef